Molecular aspects of conifer zygotic and somatic embryo development: a review of genome-wide approaches and recent insights. In: Germana MA, Lambardi M (eds) In vitro embryogenesis in higher plants, Methods in molecular biology, vol. 1359, Chapter 8, Springer Science+Business Media, New York, pp. 167-207, doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-3061-6_8
Trontin J-F, Klimaszewska K, Morel A, Hargreaves C, Lelu-Walter M-A
A collaboration of FCBA, Canadian Forest Service (Canada), Scion (Nouvelle-Zélande) and INRA of Orléans
Genome-wide profiling (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) is providing unprecedented opportunities to unravel the complexity of coordinated gene expression during embryo development in trees, especially conifer species harbouring “giga-genome”. This knowledge should be critical for the efficient delivery of improved varieties through seeds and/or somatic embryos in fluctuating markets and to cope with climate change. We reviewed “omics” as well as targeted gene expression studies during both somatic and zygotic embryo development in conifers and tentatively puzzled over the critical processes and genes involved at the specific developmental and transition stages. Current limitations to the interpretation of these large datasets are going to be lifted through the ongoing development of comprehensive genome resources in conifers. Nevertheless omics already confirmed that master regulators (e.g. transcription and epigenetic factors) play central roles. As in model angiosperms, the molecular regulation from early to late embryogenesis may mainly arise from spatio-temporal modulation of auxin-, gibberellin- and abscisic acid-mediated responses. Omics also showed the potential for the development of tools to assess the progress of embryo development or to build genotype-independent, predictive models of embryogenesis-specific characteristics.